Tools for Climate & Energy Policy Analysis

units converter for Microsoft Excel

Download this spreadsheet and copy the 'units' tab into your own spreadsheet to make units conversions transparent. For example, enter the formula


to convert 1,000 Btu into units of kWh (producing the result 0.293).

interaction of emission reduction mechanisms

If you are implementing two emission reduction mechanisms that each cause a fractional emission reduction of r1 and r2 respectively, then what is the fractional reduction r1+2 caused by both together? The answer it turns out is

r1+2 = r1 + r2 - r1r2.

Read this note to understand why.